Approaches[ edit ] One can sub-divide approaches to the origin of language according to some underlying assumptions:
Map of early diversification of modern humans according to mitochondrial population genetics see: The first lineage to branch off from Mitochondrial Eve is L0.
It is also found among the Mbuti people. The macro haplogroups M and Nwhich are the lineages of the rest of the world outside Africa, descend from L3. L3 is about 84, years old and haplogroup M and N are about 63, years old.
If there had been several migrations, one would expect descendants of more than one lineage to be found. A possible explanation is that these mutations occurred in East Africa shortly before the exodus and became the dominant haplogroups after the departure through the founder effect.
Alternatively, the mutations may have arisen shortly afterwards. Southern Route and haplogroups M and N[ edit ] Results from mtDNA collected from aboriginal Malaysians called Orang Asli and the creation of a phylogenetic tree indicate that the hapologroups M and N share characteristics with original African groups from approximately 85, years ago and share characteristics with sub-haplogroups among coastal south-east Asian regions, such as Australasia, the Indian subcontinent and throughout continental Asia, which had dispersed and separated from its African origins approximately 65, years ago.
This southern coastal dispersion would have occurred before the dispersion through the Levant approximately 45, years ago. Evidence of the coastal migration is thought to have been destroyed by the rise in sea levels during the Holocene epoch. The group that crossed the Red Sea travelled along the coastal route around Arabia and Persia until reaching India.
The indigenous people of the Andaman Islands also belong to the M lineage.
The Andamanese are thought to be offshoots of some of the earliest inhabitants in Asia because of their long isolation from the mainland. They are evidence of the coastal route of early settlers that extends from India to Thailand and Indonesia all the way to Papua New Guinea.
The proportion of haplogroup M increases eastwards from Arabia to India; in eastern India, M outnumbers N by a ratio of 3: Crossing into Southeast Asia, haplogroup N mostly in the form of derivatives of its R subclade reappears as the predominant lineage.
Human genetic variation and Human genetic clustering A study of African, European and Asian populations, found greater genetic diversity among Africans than among Eurasians, and that genetic diversity among Eurasians is largely a subset of that among Africans, supporting the out of Africa model.
Based on this evidence, the study concluded that human populations encountered novel selective pressures as they expanded out of Africa. According to this study, Papua New Guineans continued to be exposed to selection for dark skin color so that, although these groups are distinct from Africans in other places, the allele for dark skin color shared by contemporary Africans, Andamanese and New Guineans is an archaism.
A study by Gurdasani et al. For this reason, JCV has been used as a genetic marker for human evolution and migration.
From this Shackelton et al. Admixture of archaic and modern humans[ edit ] Main article: Archaic human admixture with modern humans Evidence for archaic human species descended from Homo heidelbergensis having interbred with modern humans outside of Africa, was discovered in the s.
This concerns primarily Neanderthal admixture in all modern populations except for Sub-Saharan Africans but evidence has also been presented for Denisova hominin admixture in Australasia i.
AterianBaradostianand Microlith In addition to genetic analysis, Petraglia et al. He proposed that the stone tools could be dated to 35 ka in South Asia, and the new technology might be influenced by environmental change and population pressure. The cladistic relationship of humans with the African apes was suggested by Charles Darwin after studying the behaviour of African apesone of which was displayed at the London Zoo.The "Recent African origin" of modern humans means "single origin" (monogenism) and has been used in various contexts as an antonym to polygenism.
The debate in anthropology had swung in favour of monogenism by the midth century. In paleoanthropology, the recent African origin of modern humans, also called the "Out of Africa" theory (OOA), recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH), replacement hypothesis, or recent African origin model (RAO), is the dominant model of the geographic origin and early migration of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens).
Modern humans originated in Africa within the past , years and evolved from their most likely recent common ancestor, Homo erectus, which means ‘upright man’ in Latin. Homo erectus is an extinct species of human that lived between million and , years ago.
The first debates about the nature of human evolution arose between Thomas Henry Huxley and Richard Owen. Huxley argued for human evolution from apes by illustrating many of the similarities and differences between humans and apes, and did so particularly in .
The origins debate, which is shorthand for the evolution versus creationism debate, is the controversy that arose when discoveries in palaeontology, geology and calculations in cosmology pointed to an age of the Earth in billions of years. Evolution of modern humans. The origin of modern humans has probably been the most debated issue in evolutionary biology over the last few decades.
Where did we come from? Historically, two key models have been put forward to explain the evolution of Homo sapiens. These are the ‘out of Africa’ model and the ‘multi-regional’ model.