This is why this first lesson is unusually lecture-like. What I aim to teach in this new series of lessons is not the traditional flowing scripts that the words "Arabic calligraphy" evoke. Only a handful of people in the world, today, do this at all; most practitioners are content with using what they learned as they learned it, while large numbers of calligraphy students, I have observed, lose interest long before they have put in enough practice to make anything of it.
Of all the accomplishments of the ancient Middle East, the invention of the alphabet is probably the greatest. While pre-alphabetic systems of writing in the Old World became steadily more phonetic, they were still exceedingly cumbersome, and the syllabic systems that gradually replaced them… Theories of the origin of the alphabet The evolution of the alphabet involved two important achievements.
The first was the step taken by a group of Semitic-speaking people, perhaps the Phoenicians, on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean between and bce. This was the invention of a consonantal writing system known as North Semitic.
The second was the invention, by the Greeks, of characters for representing vowels. This step occurred between and bce. While some scholars consider the Semitic writing system an unvocalized syllabary and the Greek system the true alphabet, both are treated here as forms of the alphabet.
Over the centuries, various theories have been advanced to explain the origin of alphabetic writing, and, since Classical times, the problem has been a matter of serious study.
The Greeks and Romans considered five different peoples as the possible inventors of the alphabet—the Phoenicians, Egyptians, Assyrians, Cretans, and Hebrews.
Among modern theories are some that are not very different from those islamic writing alphabet letters ancient days. Every country situated in or more or less near the eastern Mediterranean has been singled out for the honour.
Egyptian writingcuneiformCretan, hieroglyphic Hittite, the Cypriot syllabaryand other scripts have all been called prototypes of the alphabet.
The Egyptian theory actually subdivides into three separate theories, according to whether the Egyptian hieroglyphic, the hieratic, or the demotic script is regarded as the true parent of alphabetic writing.
Similarly, the idea that cuneiform was the precursor of the alphabet may also be subdivided into those singling out Sumerian, Babylonian, or Assyrian cuneiform. Among the various other theories concerning the alphabet are the hypotheses that the alphabet was taken by the Philistines from Crete to Palestine, that the various ancient scripts of the Mediterranean countries developed from prehistoric geometric symbols employed throughout the Mediterranean area from the earliest times, and that the proto-Sinaitic inscriptions discovered since in the Sinai Peninsula represent a stage of writing intermediate between the Egyptian hieroglyphics and the North Semitic alphabet.
Another hypothesisthe Ugaritic theory, evolved after an epoch-making discovery in and the years following at the site of the ancient Ugariton the Syrian coast opposite the most easterly cape of Cyprus.
Thousands of clay tablets were found there, documents of inestimable value in many fields of research including epigraphyphilologyand the history of religion. Dating from the 15th and 14th centuries bce, they were written in a cuneiform alphabet of 30 letters.
The Early Canaanite theory is based on several undeciphered inscriptions also discovered since at various Palestinian sites; the writings belong in part to c.
Despite the conflict in theories, scholars are generally agreed that, for about years before the middle of the 2nd millennium bce, alphabet making was in the air in the Syro-Palestinian region. It is idle to speculate on the meaning of the various discoveries referred to.
That they manifest closely related efforts is certain; what the exact relationship among these efforts was, and what their relationship with the North Semitic alphabet was, cannot be said with certainty.
It can, however, be ascertained that the period from to bce in SyriaPalestine, and Egypt, during which there was an uprooting of established cultural and ethnic patterns in the Fertile Crescentprovided conditions favourable to the conception of an alphabetic script, a kind of writing that would be more accessible to larger groups of people, in contrast to the scripts of the old states of Mesopotamia and Egypt, which were confined largely to the priestly class.
In default of other direct evidence, it is reasonable to suppose that the actual prototype of the alphabet was not very different from the writing of the earliest North Semitic inscriptions now extantwhich belong to the last two or three centuries of the 2nd millennium bce.The Latin or Roman alphabet is the writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin lausannecongress2018.com to its use in writing Germanic, Romance, and other languages first in Europe and then in other parts of the world and due to its use in Romanizing writing of other languages, it has become widespread globally (see Latin script).It is also used officially in China (separate.
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Number of letters: 28 (in Arabic) - some additional letters are used in Arabic when writing placenames or foreign words containing sounds which do not occur in Standard Arabic, such as /p/ or /g/.
Additional letters are used when writing other languages. I am an Arabic and Islamic studies teacher and teach private and public classes on Arabic grammar. I would always face the problem of poor Arabic writing and frequent mistakes and blunders from the students due to not having a proper, systematic instructional text that could help in this regard.