This broad family includes most of the European languages spoken today. The Indo-European family includes several major branches:
He founds the Merovingian dynasty and passes his kingdom on to his sons, who begin fighting one another for additional territory. He creates the Latin church, which serves to counteract the subordination of the Roman popes to Eastern emperors.
As the fourth great "church father," St. His concepts of purgatory and penance widen the gulf between the Eastern and Western Churches. He reigns until his death in For the sake of convenience, the rule of Heraclius generally marks the beginning of Byzantine history, though it can be argued that Byzantine civilization begins with Diocletian, Constantine or Justinian.
The Jerusalem cross is retrieved from the Persians, who stole the relic in Heraclius reigns until his death in He is succeeded by his son, Charles Martel, who forms an alliance with the Church which helps the Merovingian Dynasty and Christianity to expand into Germany.
Pepin the Short succeeds his father, Charles Martel, and strengthens the alliance between Benedictine missionaries and Frankish expansion. Byzantine Emperor Leo the Isaurian, who reigns untilcounters the Arab attempt with "Greek Fire" a liquid mixture of sulfur, naphtha and quicklime which is released from bronze tubes, situated on ships and on the walls of Constantinople and great military strength.
Leo defeats the Arab forces and reconquers most of Asia Minor. The territory of Asia Minor, together with Greece, becomes the seat of Byzantine civilization for several centuries.
The Iconoclasts advocate doing away with paganistic icon worship images of Christ or saints. For them, Christ cannot be manifested or conceived of through human art. The Iconoclast controversy ends in the ninth century when a new Byzantine spirituality recognizes that the contemplation of icons may help someone assend from the material to the immaterial.
The work is anonymous and untitled until It is a Christian poem that exemplifies early medieval society in England and shows roots in Old Testament Law.
The greatest surviving product of these monks is the Book of Kells, a Gospel book of decorative art. Boniface anoints Pepin a divinely sanctioned king, and the Frankish monarchy is fused into the papal order. The western European empire, based on the alliance between the Frankish monarchy and the Latin Church, provides the image of Western cultural unity for Europeans, though it does not last long.
In time, his empire, known as the Carolingian dynasty, includes the greater section of central Europe, northern Italy and central Italy in addition to realms already conquered by Frankish rule.
Charlemagne's system of government divides the vast realm into different regions, ruled by local "counts" who are overseen by representatives of Charlemagne's own court. In addition, to aid expansion and administration of the kingdom, Charlemagne promotes, what is called later, the "Carolingian Renaissance.
The director of the "renaissance" is Anglo-Saxon Benedictine Alcuin, who receives his learning from a student of Bede. Alcuin sets up schools, sees to the copying of classical Latin texts and develops a new handwriting.
This event indicates an autonomous Western culture based on Western Christianity and Latin linguistics. Charlemagne establishes schools in all bishoprics and monasteries under his control. His sole surviving son, Louis the Pious, divides his inheritance between his own three sons, who engage in civil war.
Charlemagne's united realm is invaded by Scandinavian Vikings, Hungarians and Muslims during these civil wars. The Carolingian Empire falls apart. Alfred is responsible for the codification of English law, public interest in local government and the reorganization of the army.
He founds schools and promotes Anglo-Saxon literacy and the establishment of a national culture.BRittany. DUKES of brittanY. v Updated 01 August RETURN TO INDEX. RETURN TO BRITTANY INTRODUCTION.
TABLE OF CONTENTS. Chapter 1. DUKES of BRITTANY A. DUKES of BRITTANY B. DUKES of BRITTANY (FAMILY of COMTES de POHER) C. DUKES of BRITTANY . About half of the most commonly used words in Modern English have Old English roots.
Words like be, water, and strong, for example, derive from Old English roots. Old English, whose best-known surviving example is the poem Beowulf, lasted until about /5(15).
Æthelstan or Athelstan (/ ˈ æ θ əl s t æ n /; Old English: Æþelstan or Æðelstān,; Old Norse: Aðalsteinn meaning "noble stone"; c. – 27 October ) was King of the Anglo-Saxons from to and King of the English from to when he died.
He was the son of King Edward the Elder and his first wife, lausannecongress2018.com historians . Because of this, up to a half of everyday modern English will typically be made up of Old English words, and, by some estimates, ALL of the hundred most commonly-used words in modern English are of Anglo-Saxon origin (although pronunciations and spellings may have changed significantly over time).
The HyperTexts English Poetry Timeline and Chronology English Literature Timeline and Chronology World Literature Timeline and Chronology This is a timeline of English poetry and literature, from the earliest Celtic, Gaelic, Druidic, Anglo-Roman, Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman works, to the present day.
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