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Being awarded a fellowship to attend the seminar, which was jointly funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and the National Endowment for the Humanities, enabled me to take the time to read deeply in the literature of the profession, where I discovered that the failings I had been seeing in American archival institutions were not primarily a consequence of bad management, but of the fact that the best methods of the profession were inadequate to the task at hand.

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Literature Cited In This Report 1. Introduction Poison oak Toxicodendron diversilobum and its eastern counterpart poison ivy T. These species were formerly placed in the genus Rhus.

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Poison oak and poison ivy do not spare age, sex, race or economic status. Each year thousands of people are afflicted with moderate to severe dermatitis from touching the foliage of these plants. Poison oak and poison ivy account for an estimated ten percent of lost work time in the U.

People who breathe in the smoke and soot may develop serious inflammation of respiratory mucous membranes. In fact, Captain Smith included an illustration of the plant and originated the common name because of its superficial resemblance to English ivy Hedera helix or Boston ivy Parthenocissus tricuspidata.

The name ivy or "hiedra" was also used by early Mexican settlers in California who mistakenly thought poison oak was a kind of ivy. A little-known subspecies of poison ivy, T.

Our California poison oak was noted by another British explorer of the 19th century, Captain Frederick Beechey, who took samples back to England. Much to the chagrin of unwary gardeners, both poison oak and poison ivy were planted in English gardens for their graceful climbing habit and beautiful autumnal coloration.

North Americans and English gardeners are not the only ones exposed to Toxicodendron dermatitis. In his monograph of poison oak and poison ivy, Gillis lists four native species of Toxicodendron in North America, including seven subspecies of poison ivy. He also lists three species in Malaysia and China, including two subspecies of poison ivy, one in China and one in Japan.

Poison oak is a widespread deciduous shrub throughout mountains and valleys of California, generally below 5, feet elevation.

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In shady canyons and riparian habitats it commonly grows as a climbing vine with aerial adventitious roots that adhere to the trunks of oaks and sycamores. Poison oak also forms dense thickets in chaparral and coastal sage scrub, particularly in central and northern California.

It regenerates readily after disturbances such as fire and the clearing of land. Rocky Mountain poison oak Toxicodendron rydbergii occurs in canyons throughout the western United States and Canada.

Because the two species of western poison oak often exhibit a viny growth form, they are listed as subspecies of eastern poison ivy by some authors. Poison oak Toxicodendron diversilobum is described as a shrub, but it often grows like a climbing vine on the trunks of coast live oak Quercus agrifolia in Diego County.

Poison oak A and a related, look-alike shrub Rhus trilobata B that also belongs to the sumac family Anacardiaceae. Taxonomy of Toxicodendron The pinnately trifoliate leaves typically have three leaflets sometimes fivethe terminal one on a slender rachis also called a stalk or petiolule.

Eastern poison ivy often has a longer rachis and the leaflet margins tend to be less lobed and serrated less "oak-like". In the similar-appearing squaw bush Rhus trilobata the terminal leaflet is sessile without a stalk.

Like many members of the sumac family Anacardiaceae new foliage and autumn leaves often turn brilliant shades of pink and red due to anthocyanin pigments. In the eastern states poison ivy is often mistaken for another common native called Virginia creeper Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Virginia creeper has a similar growth habit and beautiful autumn foliage, but typically has five leaflets rather than three.Free Thursday.

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