Structuration is one prominent example of this view. The first approach emphasizing the importance of societal structure dominated in classical sociology. Durkheim strongly believed that the collective had emergent properties of its own and saw the need for a science which would deal with this emergence. The second approach methodological individualism, etc.
This short essay packs quite an intellectual punch as well, connecting space and population density with economics with human striving and human behaviour in ways that many others never manage, even with the benefit of building on such work that does.
The deepest problems of modern life flow from the attempt of the individual to maintain the independence and individuality of his existence against the sovereign powers of society, against the weight of the historical heritage and the external culture Simmel metropolis and mental life technique of life.
The psychological foundation, upon which the metropolitan individuality is erected, is the intensification of emotional life due to the swift and continuous shift of external and internal stimuli.
Thereby the essentially intellectualistic character of the mental life of the metropolis becomes intelligible as over against that of the small town which rests more on feelings and emotional relationships. These latter are rooted in the unconscious levels of the mind and develop most readily in the steady equilibrium of unbroken customs.
The locus of reason, on the other hand, is in the lucid, conscious upper strata of the mind and it is the most adaptable of our inner forces Fascinating, too, that this translates for Simmel into pure intellectuality, and thus an instrumentality that facilitates a money economy and capitalism itself.
This intellectualistic quality which is thus recognized as a protection of the inner life against the domination of the metropolis, becomes ramified into numerous specific phenomena….
They have in common a purely matter-of-fact attitude in the treatment of persons and things in which a formal justice is often combined with an unrelenting hardness.
The purely intellectualistic person is indifferent to all things personal… There are at least two things going on here, I think. In certain apparently insignificant characters or traits of the most external aspects of life are to be found a number of characteristic mental tendencies.
The modern mind has become more and more a calculating one. The calculating exactness of practical life which has resulted from a money economy corresponds to the ideal of natural science, namely that of transforming the world into an arithmetical problem and of fixing every one of its parts in a mathematical formula.
It has been money economy which has thus filled the daily life of so many people with weighing, calculating, enumerating and the reduction of qualitative values to quantitative terms. The relationships and concerns of the typical metropolitan resident are so manifold and complex that, especially as a result of the agglomeration of so many persons with such differentiated interests, their relationships and activities intertwine with one another into a many-membered organism.
This organism, by reason of the crowded and always-changing nature of its spatiality, requires an ever greater temporal organisation: For this reason the technique of metropolitan life in general is not conceivable without all of its activities and reciprocal relationships being organized and coordinated in the most punctual way into a firmly fixed framework of time which transcends all subjective elements … every event, however restricted to this superficial level it may appear, comes immediately into contact with the depths of the soul, and that the most banal externalities are, in the last analysis, bound up with the final decisions concerning the meaning and the style of life.
Punctuality, calculability and exactness, which are required by the complications and extensiveness of metropolitan life, are not only most intimately connected with its capitalistic and intellectualistic character but also colour the content of life and are conductive to the exclusion of those irrational, instinctive, sovereign human traits and impulses which originally seek to determine the form of life from within instead of receiving it from the outside in a general, schematically precise form.
We see that the self preservation of certain types of personalities is obtained at the cost of devaluing the entire objective world, ending inevitably in dragging the personality downward into a feeling of its own valuelessness. Whereas the subject of this form of existence must come to terms with it for himself, his self-preservation in the face of the great city requires of him a no less negative type of social conduct.
The mental attitude of the people of the metropolis to one another may be designated formally as one of reserve. If the unceasing external contact of numbers of persons in the city should be met by the same number of inner reactions as in the small town, in which one knows almost every person he meets and to each of whom he has a positive relationship, one would be completely atomized internally and would fall into an unthinkable mental condition.
With so much stimuli you are forced to shut down a little bit, forced to create some kind of shell of indifference.
There is a resonance to this that perhaps I am not quite ready to grant to the rest, but it has me thinking in ways I find particularly fruitful: To the extent that money, with its colourlessness and its indifferent quality, can become a common denominator of all values, it becomes the frightful leveller — it hollows out the core of things, their peculiarities, their specific values and their uniqueness and incomparability in a way which is beyond repair.
Indeed, if I am not mistaken, the inner side of this external reserve is not only indifference but more frequently than we believe, it is a slight aversion, a mutual strangeness and repulsion which, in a close contact which has arisen any way whatever, can break out into hatred and conflict.Art and visual culture: Medieval to modern Introduction.
This introduction to the history of art and visual culture provides a broad overview of the major developments in western art . Jun 07, · Georg Simmel's essay "The Metropolis and Mental Life" () was originally a part of a series of lectures carried out by Simmel and his associates discussing different aspects of social urban life at the turn of the 19 th century.
In it, Simmel illustrates some aspects of modern urban lausannecongress2018.com: אני.
The Metropolis and Mental Life by Georg Simmel adapted by D. Weinstein from Kurt Wolff (Trans.) The Sociology of Georg lausannecongress2018.com York: Free Press, , pp ''The City Image and its Elements" from The Image of the City () Kevin Lynch Editors' Introduction • Kevin Lynch (), a professor of urban design at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is the towering figure of twentieth-century urban design.
The Image of . European Association for Urban History - Welcome to the European Association for Urban History.
JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. Art and visual culture: Medieval to modern Introduction. This introduction to the history of art and visual culture provides a broad overview of the major developments in western art . Oct 03, · Georg Simmel: The Metropolis and Mental Life October 3, Andrea Gibbons 5 Comments I am finally getting around to reading Georg Simmel’s () sociological and urban classic ‘The Metropolis and Mental Life’ (download here) on the relationship between the city and the people within it.
The European Association for Urban History (EAUH) was established in . is and in to a was not you i of it the be he his but for are this that by on at they with which she or from had we will have an what been one if would who has her.