Chemical Economics Handbook Published April In the petrochemical industry, the organic chemicals produced in the largest volumes are methanol, ethylene, propylene, butadiene, benzene, toluene, and xylenes. Ethylene, propylene, and butadiene, along with butylenes, are collectively called olefins, which belong to a class of unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons having the general formula CnH2n.
Following are the important geographical factors influencing the location of industries. The significance of raw materials in manufacturing industry is so fundamental that it needs no emphasising.
Indeed, the location of industrial enterprises is sometimes determined simply by location of the raw materials.
Modem industry is so complex that a wide range of raw materials is necessary for its growth. Further we should bear in mind that finished product of one industry may well be the raw material of another. For example, pig iron, produced by smelting industry, serves as the raw material for steel making industry.
Industries which use heavy and bulky raw materials in their primary stage in large quantities are usually located near the supply of the raw materials.
It is true in the case of raw materials which lose weight in the process of manufacture or which cannot bear high transport cost or cannot be transported over long distances because of their perishable nature. This has been recognised since when Alfred Weber published his theory of location of industry.
The jute mills in West Bengal, sugar mills in Uttar Pradesh, cotton textile mills in Maharashtra and Gujarat are concentrated close to the sources of raw materials for this very reason.
Industries like iron and steel, which use very large quantities of coal and iron ore, losing lot of weight in the process of manufacture, are generally located near the sources of coal and iron ore.
Some of the industries, like watch and electronics industries use very wide range of light raw materials and the attractive influence of each separate material diminishes. Regular supply of power is a pre-requisite for the localisation of industries.
Coal, mineral oil and hydro-electricity are the three important conventional sources of power. Most of the industries tend to concentrate at the source of power.
The iron and steel industry which mainly depends on large quantities of coking coal as source of power are frequently tied to coal fields.
Others like the electro-metallurgical and electro-chemical industries, which are great users of cheap hydro-electric power, are generally found in the areas of hydro-power production, for instance, aluminium industry. As petroleum can be easily piped and electricity can be transmitted over long distances by wires, it is possible to disperse the industry over a larger area.
Industries moved to southern states only when hydro-power could be developed in these coal-deficient areas.
Thus, more than all other factors affecting the location of large and heavy industries, quite often they are established at a point which has the best economic advantage in obtaining power and raw materials.
Tata Iron and Steel Plant at Jamshedpur, the new aluminium producing units at Korba Chhattisgarh and Renukoot Uttar Pradeshthe copper smelting plant at Khetri Rajasthan and the fertilizer factory at Nangal Punjab are near the sources of power and raw material deposits, although other factors have also played their role.
No one can deny that the prior existence of a labour force is attractive to industry unless there are strong reasons to the contrary.
Labour supply is important in two respects a workers in large numbers are often required; b people with skill or technical expertise are needed.
Estall and Buchanan showed in that labour costs can vary between 62 per cent in clothing and related industries to 29 per cent in the chemical industry; in the fabricated metal products industries they work out at 43 per cent. In our country, modem industry still requires a large number of workers in spite of increasing mechanisation.
There is no problem in securing unskilled labour by locating such industries in large urban centres. Although, the location of any industrial unit is determined after a careful balancing of all relevant factors, yet the light consumer goods and agro-based industries generally require a plentiful of labour supply.
Transport by land or water is necessary for the assembly of raw materials and for the marketing of the finished products. The development of railways in India, connecting the port towns with hinterland determined the location of many industries around Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai.
As industrial development also furthers the improvement of transport facilities, it is difficult to estimate how much a particular industry owes to original transport facilities available in a particular area.
The entire process of manufacturing is useless until the finished goods reach the market. Nearness to market is essential for quick disposal of manufactured goods. It helps in reducing the transport cost and enables the consumer to get things at cheaper rates.
It is becoming more and more true that industries are seeking locations as near as possible to their markets; it has been remarked that market attractions are now so great that a market location is being increasingly regarded as the normal one, and that a location elsewhere needs very strong justification.
Ready market is most essential for perishable and heavy commodities. Sometimes, there is a considerable material increase in weight, bulk or fragility during the process of manufacture and in such cases industry tends to be market oriented.
Many industries are established near rivers, canals and lakes, because of this reason. Iron and steel industry, textile industries and chemical industries require large quantities of water, for their proper functioning. Significance of water in industry is evident from Table Also it requires 36, litres of water to produce one kwh of thermal electricity.
Further, it is worth noting that water used in industries gets polluted and is therefore not available for any other purpose.NSW Department of Primary Industries or the user’s independent adviser. Wheat growth and development. is to link plant physiology and crop It will help agronomists and farmers to understand the life cycle of the wheat plant, and the factors that influence growth and development, and to identify the growth stages of the wheat plant.
Factors that Influence Variations in Primary Production. Primary production is the rate of carbon fixation by photosynthesis.
The primary forcing variable is therefore light. The light field varies with depth in the ocean, with time of day, and with time of year. NSW Department of Primary Industries or the user’s independent adviser. Wheat growth and development. is to link plant physiology and crop It will help agronomists and farmers to understand the life cycle of the wheat plant, and the factors that influence growth and development, and to identify the growth stages of the wheat .
location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside the plant, such as land, labor, and capital.
situation factors location factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory. Geographic Factors of Population Distribution Physical conditions, such as climate (temperature and rainfall), landforms in terms of altitudes, the quality of the soil and the availability of energy and mine resources are the important geographical determinants of population distribution.
Spatial Distribution and Density of Population economic, political and historical factors affect population distribution. In the case of Cambodia, civil unrest in the past had forced a large number of people to migrate from Cambodia is divided into the following four natural regions: Plain, Tonle Sap, Coastal, and Plateau and.